What happens if I take testosterone?

What is Testosterone? A sex hormone present in men and, in much lower levels, in women. In men, the secretion of androgenic hormones derives, in particular, from the interstitial cells of the testes, while in women from the ovaries and adrenal cortices. What are the functions of testosterone? It is a fundamental hormone for the development and maintenance of sexual and reproductive functions (it stimulates desire and guarantees fertility); regulates secondary sexual characteristics (such as, for example, the growth of the beard and the tone of the voice); plays an important role for cognitive functions, for muscular and skeletal tropism.

When can testosterone concentration increase? In the presence of primary hypergonadism; hyperthyroidism; congenital adrenal hyperplasia; precocious puberty; polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS); pituitary or hypothalamus cancer; testicular, ovarian, or adrenal gland cancer; estrogen therapy; in case of intense physical activity and use of anabolic steroids for sports purposes.

What are the symptoms of high testosterone levels in men? Kidney and liver disorders; cardiovascular problems; hypercholesterolemia (excess cholesterol in the blood); thyroid dysfunction; increase in muscle mass. In women, on the other hand, excess testosterone can present the following symptoms: irregularity of the menstrual cycle or absent menstruation; breast hypertrophy; excessive hair growth; acne; lowering of the voice; infertility.

What are the causes of low testosterone in men? First of all, it is good to remember that in women, as a rule, the levels are low, while in men the concentration of this hormone decreases after 40 years of age. This reduction may be more accelerated in obese men or those with chronic conditions and in those who use certain drugs (such as androgens and steroids). A low testosterone level may be due to: being overweight; the presence of abdominal fat, insulin resistance; alcoholism; late puberty; ovarian failure and menopause (in women); tuberculosis; brain tumors; pathologies of the hypothalamus or pituitary; to Cushing’s syndrome.

What are the symptoms of low testosterone levels in men? Reduction of sexual desire; erectile dysfunction; fertility problems; nervousness; insomnia; excessive hair loss; excessive sweating; increase in body fat; osteoporosis. If your testosterone levels are low, you will need to contact a specialist who will be able to advise you on how to supplement it through the appropriate drug therapy. Maybe you’re wondering: ” What happens if I take testosterone? В». To know the answer to this and many other questions, continue reading my article.

To find out more, we interviewed dr. Alberto Gritti (specialist in Urology and Andrology, an expert in male diseases). Following, you will find the interview, after which I will tell you about two interesting jurisprudential pronouncements on testosterone.

Testosterone: what is it?

The testosterone is a hormone, i.e., a substance produced by a body which acts as some other part of the organism itself reaching the target organ via the blood. Testosterone is produced by the Leydig cells of the testicles and acts on different target organs: penis, brain, muscles, bones, red blood cells, skin, prostate, etc. For these reasons, it is vital for the life of the gender individual male.

Testosterone: what is it for?

Let’s make a list of the organs or systems on which testosterone acts and explain how it acts:

в—Џ       sexual behavior: a heterosexual man without testosterone would live his life ignoring women completely as a sexual object. Men who have a drop in testosterone experience a corresponding drop in desire and, therefore, reduce the frequency of weekly reports;

в—Џ       corpora cavernosa of the penis: these are the organs that fill with blood during an erection, ensuring its adequate rigidity. They present numerous testosterone receptors. Animal studies have shown that, in the absence of testosterone, an erection does not occur completely, even stimulating the nerve compartment that underlies erectile dynamics;

в—Џ       muscles: muscle cells respond to testosterone levels by increasing their size and their ability to generate strength; in addition, testosterone can induce hyperplasia, or the formation of new muscle cells;

в—Џ       bones: men are less prone to osteoporosis than women. We are led to think that bone density, or the parameter that drops in case of osteoporosis, depends only on calcium. In fact, testosterone is critical for maintaining solid bones ;

в—Џ       adipose tissue: simplifying a lot, we can say that testosterone reduces adipose tissue by
increasing lean body mass.

Testosterone halotestin hubei en venta en espana: how is it produced?

Testosterone is produced by the testicular Leydig cells. The signal that determines testosterone production is a pituitary hormone called luteinizing hormone (LH) which gives Leydig cells the order to make testosterone.

Testosterone: What are the optimal values ​​for humans?

More than optimal values, it is good to refer to the threshold value above which a testosterone deficiency is generally never treated. This value is 300 ng/dl. In any case, even patients with a value lower than this are treated with TRT (testosterone replacement Therapy) only if there is a co-presence of symptoms indicative of deficit.

Testosterone: does it decrease with age?

The decrease in testosterone with age is the phenomenon that was called andropause years ago. Although women experience menopause in 100% of cases, this does not happen in men. We can say that the percentage of men with low testosterone varies from 8% in the decade 40 – 49 to 30% from 50 to 59 years to 70% in the decade between 70 and 79 years.

Low testosterone in men: what are the causes?

The causes can be manifold: from a problem at the hypothalamic-pituitary level that determines a deficit of the hormones that induce the testicles to produce testosterone to a primary inability of the testicles to produce testosterone.

Low testosterone levels: what consequences?

The symptoms of low testosterone levels are:

в—Џ       reduced sexual desire: this is manifested by a decrease in the desire to have relationships, in the sense that you no longer feel that “stimulus” to seek a partner;

в—Џ       erectile dysfunction: patients with low Testosterone report the feeling of how the connection between the brain and the penis had failed and, therefore, they are unable to get an erection or in any case not a satisfactory erection. Or they claim to “need concentration” or to “stay focused” during intercourse in order not to lose an erection;

в—Џ       difficulty reaching orgasm;

в—Џ       reduced orgasm intensity;

в—Џ       reduction in the amount of ejaculatory fluid;

в—Џ       increased risk of experiencing cardiovascular events;

в—Џ       low energy and poor exercise tolerance. By low energy is meant not only the tiredness that arises early in sports or work but above all the loss of enthusiasm and desire to do things;

в—Џ       drop in mood. Often people with low testosterone have a symptom called anhedonia which corresponds to the inability to feel pleasure for activities that previously were cause for joy. I refer to a simple hobby or a sport, or the positive sensations that derive from a holiday or a dinner with friends. Basically, all activities turn gray and life takes on a flat and monotonous course.

Low testosterone in men: what are the physical changes?

The physical changes are:

в—Џ       increase in weight and fat mass against the lean body;

в—Џ       osteoporosis ;

в—Џ       reduction of muscle mass;

в—Џ       gynecomastia (increased breast volume in humans).

Low testosterone in humans: how is it diagnosed?

The diagnosis is made, first of all, with the dosage of total testosterone in the blood, which is the main parameter. Secondly, it may be useful to carry out a testicular ultrasound and a measurement of body composition by means of impedance measurement, in addition to the normal urological andrological examination which already provides important information.

What are the ways to spontaneously increase testosterone?

The best way to spontaneously increase testosterone is exercise, especially with muscle exercises aimed at increasing the lean mass-fat mass ratio. Secondly, it is advisable, through nutritional advice, to obtain a diet measured on individual parameters that always allows obtaining a reduction in fat mass. Recall that the fat mass, or the adipose tissue, contains an enzyme called aromatase that converts androgens into estrogens or converts male hormones into female hormones, consequences that can be guessed.

Replacement therapy to increase testosterone: what does it consist of?

When there is a shortage of testosterone it is advisable to supplement it with pharmacological testosterone. It is available in various formulations, orally, in gel to be applied to the skin or with periodic injections (4-5 per year). This is what is called replacement therapy.

Replacement therapy to increase testosterone: what are the effects?

The effects consist of resolving or improving the symptoms mentioned above and which are related to testosterone deficiency. Those who do replacement therapy in the right way can solve problems related to the sexual sphere and can also benefit in terms of muscle strength, concentration, bone density and mood and preservation from heart attacks and angina.

Replacement therapy to increase testosterone: what are the risks?

The risks are very low if there is an indication for replacement therapy and if testosterone levels are monitored adequately. The main organs that your andrologist/urologist will have to monitor are undoubtedly given by the prostate that must be kept under control through transrectal prostate examination and ultrasound.

Recall that the PSA (prostate-specific antigen) is losing its value due to the very low reliability it presents, therefore patients must perform it through blood tests, only on specific indications of the specialist. In addition, other important and worthy of control parameters are the hematocrit through a banal blood test and possibly bone density.

Testosterone: latest judgments

After the interview with dr. Alberto Gritti, now I will illustrate the latest rulings of the Supreme Court and the TAR that have had as their object the testosterone.

Health protection of sports activities

The judges of the Court of CassationВ  [1] have been called to decide on the health protection of sports activities. The doping nature of the substances, which represents the prerequisite for the integration of the offenses envisaged by the Law of 14 December 2000 [2], can be deduced from a series of objective elements that allow to include them within the envisaged classes art. 2 of the same law, regardless of the acquisition of the ministerial tables in which the classification of prohibited drugs and practices is enclosed, as these must be recognized as merely a reconnaissance.

In the present case, the Court held that there is criminal liability for the crime of trade in doping substances with reference to the activity concerning testosterone and its derivatives since they are “substances known to be used for their anabolic properties. В».

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